Bioeconomy: Bioeconomy refers to the utilisation of renewable materials derived from natural sources and the development and deployment of the related innovations and technologies.
Ecosystem service: Ecosystem services refer to the various material and immaterial services and benefits people obtain from nature, including natural resources and processes, biodiversity etc.
Harvesting stand: A forest area allocated for cutting measures.
Multiple-use forest: Metsähallitus’ productive forest lands are multiple-use forests. Forest ecosystem services are secured during the use and management of such land. Such services include timber production, recreational use, the preconditions for reindeer husbandry and Sámi culture, and forest biodiversity.
National park: National parks are large nature reserves. They ensure biodiversity and provide people with the opportunity to exercise in a natural environment.
Regenerated area: An area that has undergone regeneration felling and on which a new forest will be planted.
Regeneration felling: Felling of a forest stand which is sufficiently mature for regeneration from the forestry point of view, or that has reached the desired age or diameter.
Retention trees: A retention tree is a tree left permanently standing in connection with felling. These trees, which are of various species and ages, promote biodiversity and diversify the structure of the forest, providing nutrition over time for several species dependent on decaying wood.
Special felling: To preserve forest biodiversity, landscape values or multiple use of a forest, felling at a site is performed in a special way that is distinct from thinning or regeneration felling. For example, a large number of trees can be removed from sunlit eskers to provide more light for species that favour hot sunny habitats. In other cases, only a few trees can be removed, in order to preserve the forest cover and shade.
Thinning or intermediate felling: Intermediate felling is a forestry measure that improves the financial yield of forests. It involves the removal of poor quality trees, or trees that hamper the growth of the best trees in the forest stand. The trees left standing grow larger in diameter, enabling the forest stand to reach the regeneration felling stage sooner.
Uneven-aged forestry: Uneven-aged forestry involves forest regeneration by cutting small-scale openings, or reducing the shading impact of large trees by crown thinning. In this way, trees of various ages grow in the forest at all times and no clear cutting occurs.